The European Union (

The EU is a supranational organization with certain competences in areas directly linked to NBS. The EU legal system is characterized by primary EU law, i.e., the Treaties that establish the EU and its functioning, and by secondary EU law (i.e. Regulations, Directives, Decisions, Recommendations, Opinions) where the EU legislates in more specific policy fields. Directives set the objectives that are binding and each Member States can decide about the best approach to reach the goals. Institutional and procedural administrative laws are not regulated by the EU and the administration of EU law is governed autonomously by each country, with the EU supervising the results. Most of the sectors regulating NBS, such as environment, water and floods management are governed by directives since institutional and procedural autonomy allows a certain degree of policy freedom (OPERANDUM D2.1, 2019)